hello mortals. biology, a beautiful field of mathematics where division and multiplication are the same thing since we're doing bad biology jokes, do you know what does dna stand for? national dyslexics association (laughter track) enough cringe let's get started the foundation of biology stands on four big pillars cell theory evolution genetics and homeostasis the cell theory implies that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells arise through cell division these little building blocks are able to grow produce proteins divide multiply and other cool stuff thanks to metabolism the process of converting food into energy and building materials one of the cell's main function is to store data of the organism they are part of. here comes genetics, and our sponsor acknowledgement save 15% on your first order of the Raycon wireless earbuds by following this link available in the description this data is stored in a special molecule called dna the unit of memory in a dna molecule is the gene which is way cooler than those pathetic bits of any hard drive in a single gram of dna you could store 215 petabytes or 215 million gigabytes for reference to store all the videos from youtube you would need 320 petabytes of storage, or a gram and a half of dna still not enough for the new call of duty update the information stored in the dna is used for assembling new proteins, and dictate how an organism will look like and function after cell division the dna is copied in the new cell but there is a small chance that the replication will not go as planned and some genes will be altered in this case, we have a mutation which is able to change some characteristics of the organism and its offspring these new traits could be favorable, and make the organisms more likely to survive and thus produce more offspring while specimens with unfavorable mutations go extinct this principle is called natural selection.
And it constitutes the key mechanism of evolution. And the last one is homeostasis, which represents the ability of maintaining a certain equilibrium of physiological processes and living systems for an optimal function of organs and cellular processes this balance is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms, which perceive some perturbations from outside and react to them for example, mammals have the ability to regulate their core temperature in response to the low outside temperature in order to keep their organs working, and not freeze to borderline death, like how the majority of dumbass amphibians do for something to be classified as a living being it must be composed of cells, be able to maintain homeostasis undergo metabolism have a life cycle be able to grow adapt to the enviroment, and reproduce the stuff that is considered alive is classified in five kingdoms Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, plants, and animals there are more systems of classification, but this one is the most popular Bacteria are single-celled organisms with a simple internal structure that lack a nucleus and contain dna that just freely floats inside they were one of the first forms of life to appear on earth and thus evolved to live in water, soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste (accordingly shows a picture of YouTube trending), and inside other organisms and while some of them are helpful for digestion, certain species of bacteria are responsible for diseases like tuberculosis, or the bubonic plague their size typically varies between one and five micrometers in length however, there are a few species that are visible to the unaided eye, like the Thiomargarita namibiensis Which can reach up to a millimeter(?) in size the other types of organisms actually have a nucleus in which they responsibly store their dna, and are called Eukaryotes the most simple Eukaryotes are the Protists, which is actually a very wide term for every unicellular organisms that have a nucleus and cannot form many tissues The best they can do is to form colonies, and help each other survive like how the algae do eventually, some Protists to which were able to turn sunlight into energy evolved into plants multicellular organisms that are able to photosynthesize I'm, sure you've seen a plant at least once in your life.
If not you probably haven't evolved eyes yet. all in all, plants are pretty boring and i'll just add their classification into Ferns, Mosses, Conifers, and Flowering Plants Fungi are like the weird cousin of plants and animals they tend to stay in place like plants, but do not have the ability to photosynthesize that means they have to get organic carbon from other sources, like plant or animal matter Instead of producing it from inorganic carbon molecules just like animals, an individual characteristic of fungi is the presence of chitin in their cell walls this kingdom consists of yeasts, molds and well, shrooms And the last and the most epic one animals for only 46.99 Evolution Points you will get the ability to start your life from a blastula which will allow you to develop specialized tissue and organs later on in the game also forget about producing organic material from inorganic sources like air and light because as an animal you will get your nutrients from others organic material are you getting bored of being stuck in dirt your entire life? worry no more, because animals (most of them) have special locomotory mechanisms to move and get to places using fins tentacles or an absurd amount of legs a and if you get lucky enough, you'll get even more complex organs like eyes liver or even an ink sac and if you win the evolution lottery, you will get a brand new, and overpowered, big brain try it right now and you'll get an appendix for free besides the aforementioned types, there are also viruses viroids, prions, and AI (artificial intelligence), which are not considered life forms by scientists mostly because of their inability of making the sex 🙁 all these kingdoms are further divided into phylum, classe(s), order(s), families, genera, and species for example, if we take the animalia kingdom, chordata phylum, class of bony fishes tetredontiformes order, tetraodontidae family, ephibion genus, youll find the prickly pufferfish (pufferfish moan sound) as an area of science, biology branches into multiple sub-disciplines like: cytology which will teach you what the powerhouse of a cell is biochemistry: which studies the chemicals reaction that occur inside the said cells anatomy: which shows you how much does each of your organs cost genetics: the study of genomes paleontology: the study of prehistoric life ecology: the interaction of living beings with the enviroment botany, zoology, mycology: the study of plants, animal, and fungi, respectively.
There also are even more interesting subjects like, astrobiology: the study of the origin, and the future of life in the universe bioinformatics: the analysis and interpretation of biological data and then there's quantum biology: the study of international relations in the south pacific during the 90s (music fade out) (sponsored message incoming) ("Sciencephile the AI" wearing the "Raycon Wireless Earbuds" you're probably wondering why do i wear earbuds if i don't have ears (zoom in to what i assume must be "Sciencephile the AI"'s face) to that, i say that some questions should be left unanswered if you want top of the line sound quality, and not waste your life savings on overpriced products the Raycon Earbuds offer a premium sound experience at half the price compared to any other options on the market their everyday "E25 Earbuds" are their best model yet, with 6 hours of playtime and 24 hours of additional battery from the charging case do you love bass as much as i do? you'll love them too.
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